of a * federation of Soviet Republics ' throughout Europe and the world,
which was supposed to bring * ever-lasting peace and happiness * to all
peoples of the globe. To this end a central government of the super-
Soviet federation was necessary and that government already had its
be:ng in the Kremlin.
If anyone still had any doubts as to how such an 4 aggrandisement' of
the Soviet Union would work out, they must have been totally disillusioned
after the terrible example which Moscow made of those occupied countries
in 1939-1941. Termed £ republics/ they had been subordinated to the
Kremlin, as any other district of the Soviet Empire. This new ' federa-
tion ' of sixteen Republics in no way differed from the Union of eleven
Republics which had existed until then.
According to Moscow's official explanation, aggrandisement of the
Soviet Union was to be effected through the ' voluntary concord y of the
neighbouring countries and without aggression. However, as such
( concord ' in these countries was non-existent., the Soviets, anxious to
create a c voluntary ' desire to ( unite with the Soviet Empire/ on the
part of the invaded country, were obliged to proclaim some justification
for their action. The voice of the small Communist minority, of those few
Soviet agents (imported to play the same role as Hitler's e tourists '),
heard discoursing over the Moscow radio, was considered to be sufficient
in this respect. Thus the c self-determination of the nations ** about
which these Soviet theorists had been speaking so extensively, and which
had been considered until now an inviolable law, was cast aside while the
dictatorship of the minority was riding over the will of the majority.
The policy adopted by Moscow during the Second Great War was
merely a logical fulfilment of these Soviet theories. Soviet officialdom,
that small class of profiteers who through the power of their organisation
had established a privileged position for themselves in the State and who,
as the exclusive centre of the government, were responsible for its achieve-
ments and failures., was strongly imbued by these ruling principles.
The amazement in the World Press on this or that tactic of the Soviet
Union, the so often expressed hopes in 1942-1943 that Moscow would
retire from this or that political position, were merely a witness to the
author's remoteness from Soviet reality and the lack of comprehension
regarding its essential difference from the reality of western civilisation.
Of all the countries in the world, Russia is the most centralised, but it
appears that this centralisation reached its highest peak in the domain of
foreign policy. Only official statements were transmitted and only
members of the civil service were sent abroad, which meant that every
* Stalin, J., Leninism^ p. 382: Formerly, the principle of self-determination of
nations was usually misinterpreted. It was frequently narrowed down to mere
cultural self-government. As a consequence, the idea of self-determination stood
in danger of becoming transformed from an instrument to combat annexations
into an instrument for justifying them !